By V. Bram. University of South Carolina, Spartanburg.
In such a case order orlistat 120 mg fast delivery, it is most likely the person would swallow the tablet and experience virtually no opioid agonist effect because of the poor oral bioavailability discount orlistat 120mg amex. Even if the person sucked on the tablet, there is a low likelihood that they would experience serious adverse effects. This is because buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, and there is a ceiling in the maximal effects produced. Clinical trials with buprenorphine have found no significant organ damage associated with chronic dosing. However, buprenorphine may be associated with increases in liver function tests, and this may be especially true for patients with a history of hepatitis prior to the onset of buprenorphine treatment. Increases in liver function tests appear to be mild, and it is important to keep in mind that other factors commonly found in opioid-dependent patients (such as hepatitis and alcohol abuse) can lead to elevations in liver function tests. Those known include: • weight gain, possibly influenced by fluid retention and dietary changes • reduced production of saliva – may contribute to dental problems • endocrine changes – may result in impotence, low libido, disrupted menstrual cycle • may be harmful in presence of underlying disease, e. Notes Effects may vary according to the individual, level of neuroadaptation, dosage, frequency taken, etc. Victoria Police 2002, Custodial Drug Guide: Medical Management of People in Custody with Alcohol and Drug Problems, Custodial Medicine Unit, Victoria Police, Mornington, Victoria, pp. End of Workshop 2 100 100 Workshop 3: Opiate Addiction Treatment with Buprenorphine 101 101 Training objectives At the end of this training you will: 1. Know the basic purpose and background evidence to support the use of buprenorphine for treating opiate dependence 3. Know contraindications and medication interactions with buprenorphine 102 102 Overview 103 103 104 104 Overview z Buprenorphine is a thebaine derivative (classified in the law as a narcotic) z High potency z Produces sufficient agonist effects to be detected by the patient z Available as a parenteral analgesic (typically 0. Sublingual tablets of buprenorphine with naloxone are also available to reduce the potential for abuse (source: U. This means that it is hard for other opioids with lower affinity to displace buprenorphine from the mu receptor (so it blocks their effects). Considerable evidence suggests buprenorphine can be given three times per week (rather than daily), and there is some evidence suggesting buprenorphine can be given even less frequently (e. Buprenorphine’s long duration of action when used as a medication for the treatment of opioid dependence contrasts with its relatively short analgesic effects. Yes Yes Repeat dose up to maximum 8/2 mg for first day Withdrawal symptoms No Manage withdrawal relieved? Yes If methadone, taper to <40 mg per day 24 hrs after last dose, give buprenorphine 4/1 mg No Withdrawal symptoms present? Yes Increase buprenorphine/naloxone dose to 12/3-16/4 mg Withdrawal symptoms No Withdrawal symptoms No continue? Yes Administer 4/1 mg doses up to maximum 24/6 mg (total) for second day Return next day for continued Withdrawal symptoms No Manage withdrawal induction; start with day 2 relieved? However methadone has better retention rates and probably less heroin use also z More research needed on if buprenorphine can be as effective as higher doses of methadone (e. In general, these studies have shown buprenorphine and methadone are equivalent on primary outcome measures (treatment retention, rates of positive urine samples for illicit opioids). Yes Compulsion Continued No Withdrawal No to use, No illicit Daily dose symptoms cravings established opioid use? Yes Yes Yes Continue adjusting dose up to 32/8 mg per day No Daily dose Continued illicit opioid use despite maximum dose? Note that it is also safe if inadvertently taken by a person who is not physically dependent on opioids (such as a child). In such a case, it is most likely the person would swallow the tablet and experience virtually no opioid agonist effect because of the poor oral bioavailability. Even if the person sucked on the tablet, there is a low likelihood that they would experience serious adverse effects. This is because buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, and there is a ceiling in the maximal effects produced. Clinical trials with buprenorphine have found no significant organ damage associated with chronic dosing. However, buprenorphine may be associated with increases in liver function tests, and this may be especially true for patients with a history of hepatitis prior to the onset of buprenorphine treatment. Increases in liver function tests appear to be mild, and it is important to keep in mind that other factors commonly found in opioid dependent patients (such as hepatitis and alcohol abuse) can lead to elevations in liver function tests. The potential for buprenorphine-precipitated withdrawal has been covered elsewhere in the Basic Pharmacology section, and will not be reviewed in detail here. While it is possible for buprenorphine to precipitate withdrawal during buprenorphine induction, and this possibility has received significant attention and review in this curriculum, it is important to keep this potential in perspective. The likelihood for buprenorphine-precipitated withdrawal is low, and even when it does occur, it is mild in intensity and short in duration. The clinician should be aware of the potential, but not allow the potential to deter from the use of buprenorphine. Unlike full agonist opioids (such as methadone and heroin), the maximal opioid agonist effect produced by buprenorphine – a partial agonist – is relatively low. The maximal effects of buprenorphine appear to occur in the 8-16 mg dose range for sublingual solution (in non-dependent opioid abusers).
The will-power of the patient generic orlistat 120 mg with mastercard, which remains strong even in the unconscious state and the doctor’s loving care can also help the patient recover faster orlistat 60mg overnight delivery. After remaining in a comatose state, for a considerable period when the patients recover, some may lose their speech or memory. This may be a case of Epilepsy: You would have noticed people attending to such persons in a very funny manner for observing curiously without helping the person correctly. This chapter deals with the problem: its causes, its correct approach and the myths associated with it. Epilepsy is a disease of the brain in which excessive electrical impulses are produced in the brain for a short period of time resulting in tremors or seizures. One in every hundred persons suffers from epilepsy and thus over l o million people in our country are afflicted with this disease. According to a survey, 4 out of every 100 persons h ave suffered from a convulsion at least once in his lifetime e. Grandmal epilepsy or seizure of the entire body: In this type of epilepsy, loss of consciousness, screaming, frothing from the mouth, tremors, tongue biting may occur and sometimes urine and stool are also passed unconsciously. After regaining consciousness, the patient remains in a semiconscious state for some time or goes to sleep He may be paralyzed temporarily. Petitmal: In this type of epilepsy the patient suddenly becomes momentarily blank, stunned and blacks out for a few moments. Myoclonic seizure: In these cases the person experiences sudden shock like momentary jerks in the limbs and the things held in hand may fall down, but there is no loss of consciousness. Besides these there are tonic-clonic and akinetic seizures, which are classified as Generalized seizures. Simple Partial Seizure: The patient remains conscious, but jerking or tingling is felt in one half side of the body. Complex Partial Seizure: If the patient loses momentary consciousness along with-* the symptoms of simple partial seizure, it is known as complex partial seizure. In this type, the patient loses consciousness or behaves abnormally for a few moments and immediately becomes normal again. This disease can be cured with proper treatment by a psychiatrist as well as by tackling the underlying socio - economic problem. In children who get convulsions during fever, it is necessary to ascertain that they do not suffer from fever as far as possible. If fever does occur, Paracetamol or Nimesulide as well as Clobazam should be administered immediately. The medicine called Direc-2 or any other similar kind can be administered rectally if a convulsion seems imminent. It is essential to prevent such seizures because frequent attacks can get converted into complex partial seizures or generalized seizures in future. To prevent an injury to the tongue, a handkerchief or a gauge piece may be placed in the mouth, but one should not insert it forcibly. If necessary, intravenous administration of Diazepam can be done or the patient may immediately be admitted to a hospital. During pregnancy certain medicines taken for epilepsy do not cause any substantial harm to the Foetus e. Actually if the drug is stopped and a seizure occurs, the harm to the Foetus due to the lack of oxygen is much greater. This gives immense information about the type, speed and seriousness of disease to the doctor, apart from telling whether it was a seizure or hysteria or syncope or any other brief event. Treatment of Epilepsy : After investigating the causes of the disease, planning proper treatment is essential. Encorate, Valparin, Epilex) As per the new technology, now slow release formulation drugs are available in Carbamazepine and Valproic acid e. This helps to maintain adequate blood level all through out the day, by taking drugs only twice a day. In the last few years many new researches have been conducted on this disease and new drugs have been developed for effective control of Epilepsy. Newer Drugs : The second generation anti-epileptic drugs, now being used to treat patients not responding to conventional drugs include Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Vigabatrine, Felbamate, Topiramate. Therefore, in patients not improving or having side effects with main conventional drugs, newer drugs should definitely be tried. Oxcarbazepine, Levitiracetam, Zonisamide have only recently been introduced and therefore, we have little experience with these drugs, but to date they have proved to be beneficial. If all these issues have been looked into and the relevant problems addressed, most of the seizures can be controlled. However the diagnosis needs to be individualized taking into consideration the patient’s age and his physical and mental condition and his social and financial background. Surgery : When drugs fail to control seizures and the cause of seizures is an electrical focus which may be localized to a structure, then seizures can be controlled after appropriate surgery.
In the history safe 120 mg orlistat, one has to answer the following principal questions: • How the wound was caused and what caused it? General inspection and specific tests have to be done to assess the following conditions: • Extent of skin loss • Degree of circulation • Damage to nerves order orlistat 60mg visa, tendons, bone and other structures (deep under) the skin • The degree of contamination • Presence of foreign body and tissue necrosis 49 Classification of wounds Once wound is carefully assessed, it is necessary to classify into a specific type in order to plan a proper management scheme. Closed wounds: These are wound types, which have an intact epithelial surface, and skin cover not completely breeched. Example: Contusion, Bruise, Hematoma Open wounds: These are wounds caused by injury which leads to a complete breakt of the epithelial protective surface. Example: Abrasion, Laceration, Puncture, Missile injuries, Bites… The following method is the traditional surgical wound classification scheme that was introduced in 1964. This method classifies wounds according to the likelihood or rate of wound infection. Clean: Non-traumatic, non-infected wound, no break in sterility technique, the respiratory, gastrointestinal or genitourinary tracts not entered. Clean-contaminated: Minor break in technique, oropharynx entered, gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts entered without significant spillage, genitourinary or biliary tracts entered in absence of infected urine or bile. If other serious conditions exist, which endanger the patient’s life, the wound should be covered with sterile gauze and priorities attended to. However, the goal in all cases is to establish a good environment to assist wound healing and prevent infection. Proper wound care includes the following measures: • Adequate hemostasis locally to stop bleeding. However, general guidelines that can be followed are: • Clean wounds should be closed primarily • Clean-contaminated wounds can be primarily closed if they can be converted, into clean wounds • Untidy, contaminated wounds which cannot be converted to tidy wounds should not be closed primarily • All missile wounds, animal and human bites should never be primarily closed unless strongly indicated Primary closure Primary closure is effective in wounds presenting within 6-8 hours and can accurately be debrided. It provides a reliable drainage and opportunity for repeated inspection and debridement as necessary. There is no specific management needed except local compress and analgesics if pain is severe. Management: - It usually gets absorbed spontaneously and should be left - Local compress to alleviate pain - Aseptic evacuation or aspiration only if very large (expanding) or over a cosmetic area or leading to compression of vital structures. Management: - Cleanse using scrubbing brushes - Use antiseptic or lean tap water and soap - Analgesic Punctures These may be compound wounds which involve deeper structures. Management: - Careful inspection - Adequate cleansing - Closure, if feasible, under appropriate anesthesia - Proper wound debridement if needed - Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis - Tetanus Prophylaxis - Analgesics as needed Crush and avulsion wounds These are compound complicated wounds. They are usually associated with systemic involvement and have more extensive damage than may appear. Management: - Correct associated life threatening conditions - Proper wound debridement - Early skin cover if possible or late graft, wound left open if contaminated - Appropriate antibiotics - Tetanus Prophylaxis - Analgesics as needed Missile injuries These are type of wounds which are compound and complicated. They usually present with severe life threatening conditions and should be carefully managed. Human bites These are relatively rare but more heavily contaminated than those of most animalss due to polymicrobial nature including anaerobic organisms as a normal oral flora. To avoid this complication the animal must be kept for observation for at least 10 days. Management should include: First aid measures: - Local wound irrigation - Apply pressure bandage proximally to avoid or reduce venom spread with caution on the blood supply - Immobilize the limb to minimize venom absorption - Transport patient immediately to nearby hospital Hospital Measures: - Identify the species - Conduct necessary laboratory investigations like hemoglobin, renal function. Local: Local complications may manifest as one or more of the following conditions- - Hematoma - Seroma 55 - Infection - Dehiscence - Granuloma formation - Scar formation - Contracture leading to loss of joint function etc Systemic: - Death may occur if un controlled sepsis or hemorrhage - Systemic manifestations of hemorrhagic shock due to massive bleeding - Bacteremia and sepsis from a source of locally infected wound 56 Review Questions 1. A) Duration of injury B) The circumstance of wounding C) The mechanism of injury D) Local appearance of the wound E) All of the above 2. A) Bullet wound of one hour duration B) Human bite of 30 minutes duration C) Glass laceration of five hours duration D) Crush injury of the leg following car accident E) None of the above 3. A proper wound care includes all measures except A) Removing all devitalized tissue B) Removing foreign bodies impregnated to the wound C) Wound inspection following primary management D) Inadequate hemostasis of a bleeding artery E) Decision to close a wound primarily 4. A) Forearm laceration from a knife B) Dog bite to the calf of one hour duration C) Blast wound to the thigh of two hours duration D) Stick wound to the scalp of four hours E) B and C are correct 5. In a contaminated wound left open to heal without closure, healing is effected by A) First intention B) Second intention C) Third intention D) Purely by epithelialization E) All of the above 7. A) Presence of foreign body B) Systemic illness C) Sex of the patient D) Poor patient nutritional state E) Presence of infection 58 Key to the Review Questions 1. It can be defined broadly as an infection related to or complicating a surgical therapy and requiring surgical management. Many infections occupy a non-vascularized space of tissue, thus are likely to respond to non-surgical treatments. These types of infection therefore definitely require surgery as a primary or definitive therapeutic approach. Examples of such infections, which definitely need surgery, can be: - Gas gangrene - Abscess - Appendicitis.
Increase in heart rate >20 bpm or blood pressure > 20 mm of Hg cheap orlistat 60 mg on line, or any evidence of haemodynamic instability or new onset arrhythmias discount 60mg orlistat visa. Extubation failure: The use of post extubation non invasive ventilators has decreased the use need for re-intubation. Tracheostomy: Tracheostomies to be considered if mechanical ventilation is expected for more than 7-10 days. This may be probably related to improved and more effective strategies for ventilation and treatment of sepsis and better supportive care of the critically ill patients. Identifying and treating the inciting clinical disorder is of utmost importance while supportive therapy with mechanical ventilation gives time for the lungs to heal. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Higher vs lower positive end-expiratory pressure in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Prone ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure and severe hypoxemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Its presentation is rapid, dramatic and frequently leads to death over the course of a few days in the absence of emergency liver transplantation. In developed countries, liver transplantation has revolutionized the prognosis of this disease and survival rates are in the range of 59 to 79%, with liver transplantation. The other etiologies with very poor prognosis include acute hepatitis B (and other non-hepatitis A viral infections), autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson’s disease and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis includes severe malaria, leptospirosis, rickettsial diseases, enteric fever, and Hanta virus infection. Clinical signs suggestive of increasing intracranial pressure include worsening of hepatic encephalopathy, systemic hypertension and bradycardia (Cushing reflex), altered pupillary reflexes and decerebrate rigidity. A record of intake and output should be maintained and a positive balance of no more than 500 ml is acceptable. In addition, respiratory support and mechanical ventilation should be provided for those with inadequate respiratory effort. Continuous modes of dialysis such as continuous veno-venous hemofiltration are better as hemodynamic stability is maintained and fluctuations in intracranial pressure are avoided. Total parenteral nutrition may be considered, in case enteral nutrition is not tolerated or there are contraindications. Bleeding Replacement therapy for thrombocytopenia and/or prolonged prothrombin time is recommended only in the setting of hemorrhage or prior to invasive procedures. Criteria for referral for liver transplant Several prognostic indicators suggest a high likelihood of mortality and in these patients, liver transplantation is the only option. Fulminant hepatitis in a tropical population: Clinical course, cause, and early predictors of outcome. Introduction: It is important to recognize and diagnose brain death especially in patients who are potential organ donors. Early diagnosis, documentation and initiation of the organ donation process and appropriate management of brain-dead organ donorsforms an important part of intensive care unit management. Definition Brain death is defined as the irreversible loss of all function of the brain, including the brainstem. The three essential findings to confirm brain death are coma (known irreversible cause), absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Once brain death criteria are met a person clinically determined to be brain dead is legally dead in the context of organ donation under the Transplantation of Human Organ Act 1994. No other tests are required if the full clinical examination, including each of two assessments of brain stem reflexes and a single apnea test, are conclusively performed. In the absence of either complete clinical findings consistent with brain death, or confirmatory tests demonstrating brain death, brain death cannot be diagnosed. Brain death test Sufficient time period has been passed to exclude possibility of possible recovery of meaningful neurological function, several hours to days as per clinical factors. Ocular movement Absent oculocephalic reflex (doll’s eye ) Absent cold caloric responses (vestibulo-ocular reflex) Absent Facial sensory and motor response Absent Pharyngeal reflex and Tracheal reflex Absence of gag reflex. Observation period between two examination Depends on the age of the patient; 7 days to 2 month old minimum 48 hr interval. Communication with family and further decision making After the clinical criteria of brain death have been met, the physician should inform the next of kin, who can be approached about organ donation. Counseling The family should be counseled that the patient cannot recover Family should be counseled for organ donation If the patient cannot become an organ donor, withholding or withdrawing of life support may be discussed with the family. Referral Criteria If the patient is a potential organ donor, he should be transferred to a tertiary level centre that is certified by the competent authority and is capable of supporting the brain dead organ donor If in some cases further diagnostic studies are required to confirm brain death o Difficulty to determine coma.
Brucellosis Pathogenesis: The organism invades the blood stream and localizes in the liver cheap 120 mg orlistat with amex, spleen buy 120mg orlistat amex, bones, etc. Patients may appear well or may be very ill with any of the following manifestations: pallor, lymphadenopathy, enlarged liver and spleen, evidences of joint inflammation, rash, etc. Anthrax Pathogenesis: The organisms release anthrax toxin, which is responsible for the different manifestations of the disease. Cutaneous anthrax (95%), which is the most common characterized by localized skin lesion with black central eschar of necrosis and non-pitting edema. Inhalation anthrax (Wool sorter’s diseases) characterized by hemorrhagic mediastinitis with high mortality rate. Since gastrointestinal anthrax is the most important form of anthrax with respect to acquisition through contaminated food, the following discussion focuses on this form of anthrax. Clinical features of gastrointestinal anthrax: There are two major forms: ¾ Gastrointestinal anthrax manifesting with fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, massive and/or bloody diarrhea and occasional ascites. Parasitic Food Borne Infections Most common food-borne parasitic diseases to be considered are Amebiasis, ascariasis, taeniasis and giardiasis. Amebiasis Pathogenesis: Motile trophozoites released from ingested cysts invade large bowel mucosa and cause mucosal ulcerations; they may also spread to other organs via the bloodstream to cause metastatic lesions (most commonly in the liver). Clinical features There are various clinical syndromes ¾ Symptomatic intestinal amebiasis manifests with abdominal pain and mild diarrhea followed by diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, malaise, and bloody-mucoid diarrhea. But in symptomatic individuals, the clinical features range widely and include diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, anorexia, weight loss, nausea and vomiting. Clinical features: Patients notice passage of proglottids in the feces, perianal discomfort, abdominal discomfort or mild pain, nausea and anorexia. Clinical Features: ¾ Intestinal infection may be asymptomatic or may manifest with epigastric discomfort, nausea, hunger sensation, diarrhea, etc. Clinical features: Clinical manifestations result from: ¾ Larval migration in the lungs: cough, shortness of breath, blood-tinged sputum ¾ Effect of adult worms in the intestine: usually asymptomatic, but may produce intestinal obstruction, perforation; or worms may migrate to ectopic sites to produce other manifestations like biliary colic. Viral Food Borne Infections Different viruses may be transmitted via contaminated food; most produce mild self- limiting illness, but occasional severe illnesses and even deaths may also occur. Viral gastroenteritis Pathogenesis: ¾ Rota virus causes osmotic diarrhea due to nutrient malabsorption. Caliciviruses such as the Norwalk virus also produce diarrhea in a similar but slightly different mechanism that culminates in nutrient malabsorption. Clinical Features: ¾ Rota virus infection causes sudden onset of vomiting followed by mild to very severe diarrhea mixed with mucus and fever. Clostridium perfringens Pathogenesis The spores are able to survive cooking, and if the cooked food (meat and poultry) is not cooled enough, they will germinate. When massive dose of these organisms are ingested with food, toxins are elaborated in the intestinal tract which cause increased fluid and electrolyte secretion. Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 Pathogenesis: Its somatic 0 and flagellar H antigens designate E-coli 0157:H7. All enter hemorrhagic strains produce shiga toxin 1 and/ or shiga toxin 2, also referred to as Vera toxin 1 and Vera toxin 2. The ability to produce shiga toxin was acquired from a bacteriophage, presumably directly or indirectly from shigella (7). This bacterium attaches itself to the walls of intestine, producing a toxin that attacks the intestinal lining (7). Clinical Features: ¾ Incubation period: The initial symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis generally occur 1 to 2 days after eating contaminated food, although periods of 3 to 5 days have been reported. Bacillus Cereus Pathogenesis: The pathogenic agent of Bacillus cereus food poisoning appears to be an entero toxin. This spore forming bacterium produces a cell–associated endo toxin that is released when cells die upon entering the digestive tract (4). Clinical features ¾ Incubation period: From 1 to 16 hours in cases where vomiting is the predominant symptom; from 6 to 24 hours where diarrhea is predominate (10,7). Clinical Features Typical symptoms include severe abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. The onset of symptoms is rapid (usually 1 to 8 hours) and of short duration (usually less than 24 hours). Pathogenesis It is primarily caused by botulinum toxin, which is a neurotoxin that binds to the synapses of motor neurons preventing neurotransmission. Clinical Features Symptoms of botulism occur within 18 to 24 hours of toxin ingestion and include blurred vision, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, muscle weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Without adequate treatment, 1/3 of the patients may die within a few days of either respiratory or cardiac failure. Lead poisoning Possible sources of contamination include residues migrating into foods from soldered cans, leaching from utensils, contaminated water, glazed pottery, painted glassware and paints.
Corticosteroids improve appetite and sense of well-being discount 120 mg orlistat otc, but do not result in weight gain orlistat 60mg mastercard. The role includes helping patients to access advice and support whenever they need it. The nature of follow up consultations will depend on the complexity of the patient’s needs and also local arrangements. The contacts are often in conjunction with follow-up with the medical/oncology team, offering extra support as needed, or instead of outpatient appointments, freeing up valuable time in the oncology/medical clinics. The emphasis on the purpose of follow-up will depend on which modality of treatment has been given. Treatment with curative intent will have more emphasis on detection of recurrent disease whereas active treatment with palliative intent may have more of a focus on detection of disease progression and symptom control. If no active treatment has been offered, then follow-up will be directed towards symptom control. It should be supported by evidence-based written information tailored to the patient’s needs. Treatment and care, and the information patients are given about it, should be culturally appropriate. It is the responsibility of this key worker to refer on to a new key worker when: a patient’s care and follow-up is taken over by another hospital a patient’s care is handed over to a community or hospital palliative care team. This information will be tailored to the individual requirements of the patients and their carers. Ensure individualised care plans are developed and implemented in conjunction with the patients and carers taking into account their needs, wishes and preferences. The group has chosen to measure its use within 31 days of diagnosis and within 6 weeks of primary treatment. The consequences of cancer treatment are dependent on multiple factors and affect each person differently. They can have an impact on every aspect of a person and on their family’s lives, from the ability to work, through to the ability to have a family or to participate in social activities. It is widely acknowledged that cancer survivors have a multitude of unmet needs following treatment, with a majority still having some needs 6 months later. Good survivorship care enables the person to live as full and active a life as possible. Survivorship can be defined as: “cover[ing] the physical, psychological and economic issues of cancer, from diagnosis until end of life. It focuses on the health and life of a person with cancer beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. Survivorship includes issues related to the ability to get healthcare and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancer and quality of life. Family members, friends and caregivers are also part of the survivorship experiences. It challenges services to develop further and focuses on five new areas: information and support from diagnosis promoting recovery sustaining recovery managing consequences supporting people with active and advanced disease. The tool allows patients to specify what is of most concern to them, and so directs subsequent discussion and intervention to addressing these needs. It has scope to cover physical, emotional, spiritual, finance and welfare, and practical concerns. Recommendations: An end of treatment consultation should be offered to every patient. In addition, following treatment all patients should be assessed for chest symptoms which may not be related to their lung cancer. Recommendation: The treatment summary should include the details of a key worker in addition to details of who to contact out of hours. Recommendation: Information on anticipated or possible consequences of cancer treatment and what to do if they occur should be routinely provided to all patients. This should be done from the time of discussion of treatment onwards, with the information clearly reiterated during the end of treatment consultation. This may cover any one of a multitude of aspects, from work and education, through to financial worries and needing help with caring responsibilities. Macmillan Cancer Support information leaflets and information prescriptions) as well as some specialist services (e. Recommendation: Patients should be routinely asked about whether they need support with day-to-day issues and referrals made to specialist services when necessary. Sometimes, these can be dealt with by the person alone or with support from the key worker and others, but some people will need referral to psychological support services. End of treatment provides an opportunity to deliver stop smoking interventions at a point at which an individual may be more susceptible to health advice and hence more motivated to quit. Recommendation: All current smokers should be asked about their smoking habit and offered smoking cessation advice with onward referral to local services as necessary. However, with smoking being the major risk factor for lung cancer, it is difficult to establish the much weaker relationship between dietary factors and the development of lung cancer. The nutritional issues during or following treatment include weight loss or gain; changes in body composition (e.
Also evident are the elongate tubules forming the parenchyma of the gland and the dense fibrous connective tissue capsule purchase 120mg orlistat with amex. Compare its transitional epithelium with the epithelium lining the ducts and glands of the prostate generic orlistat 120 mg without a prescription, which can be cuboidal, columnar or pseudostratified. The tubulo-alveolar glands of the prostate are embedded in an abundant stroma of fibro-elastic connective tissue, which is interlaced with strands of smooth muscle. Fixation is much better in the H & E sections, and it should be studied for the structure of the lining epithelium of the glands. Examine the central penile urethra and the surrounding blood-filled vascular sinuses that comprise the erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum. Note that the lining epithelium of the penile urethra has a stratified columnar or stratified cuboidal appearance. Study the erectile tissue surrounding the urethra and observe that the trabeculae between blood sinuses contain smooth muscle and connective tissue fibers. The connective tissue capsule surrounding the corpus spongiosum is not as thick as that surrounding the corpora cavernosa. At low power note the general division of the ovary into an outer cortex containing follicles in various stages of development and an inner medulla containing numerous blood vessels and dense fibrous connective tissue. Identify; Lining epithelium (classically called “germinal epithelium”) - a simple cuboidal covering the ovary, continuous with the mesothelium of the peritoneum. These are growing follicles Secondary (antral) follicles - 1 oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells among which fluid-filledo spaces are coalescing into a single space, or antrum. Outside the basal lamina of the granulosa layer, the theca has differentiated into a theca interna and a theca externa. Atresia is often first recognized in the granulosa cells as the nuclei become apoptotic and there is a loosening of the cells. Corpus luteum – Following ovulation follicular cells (both granulosa and luteal) fold into the empty follicle and undergo luteinization. Identify the two primary cellular components of the corpus luteum, the granulosa lutein and theca lutein cells. Notice the relationships of these two cell types to each other and to the vascularization of the developing corpus luteum. Granulosa lutein left, theca lutein right #64 Ovary, Corpus Luteum of Pregnancy Compare the development of this corpus luteum of pregnancy (probably from the first trimester) with that of the recently formed corpus luteum of slide #63. Note particularly the increase in thickness of the granulosa luteal layer as compared to the thin, peripheral zone of theca luteal cells. The extensive vacuolization of the granulosa luteal cells is due to the extraction of its abundant lipid droplets. This reflects the importance of the corpus luteum (particularly the granulosa lutein cells) as the primary ovarian source of the steroid hormone progesterone. Be certain that you understand the changes that occur within the follicle during follicular development. These folds decrease progressively from the ovarian (infundibular) end of the tube to the uterine (isthmus) portion. The uterine tubes are a common site of occlusion after pelvic inflammatory disease, resulting in sterility. It is important to understand the interrelationships among the pituitary, ovary, and uterus during different stages of the menstrual cycle. The proliferative stage follows menstruation and is characterized by the repair of the endometrium and the proliferation of relatively straight, tubular uterine glands. Note the rather dense, cellular appearance of the endometrial stroma (region between glands) at this stage. Left to right: spongy zone, stratum basale, myometrium What is the primary ovarian hormone stimulating the endometrium during this stage? There has been a considerable increase in glandular development, characterized by their convoluted and "saw- toothed" appearance in sections. The glands are Secretory endometrium 72 frequently distended by a lightly acidophilic secretion rich in glycogen and this serves as an important source of nutrients to the developing embryo prior to implantation. Note the coiled arterioles in the endometrium, and be certain that you understand the significance of the arterial supply to the endometrium. Locate at higher magnification some of the mucus-secreting epithelial cells, which line the cervical mucosa. Note also the abrupt transition between the simple columnar epithelium of the endocervix and the stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix. The bulk of the wall of the cervix is made up of bundles of smooth muscle interlaced with connective tissue.