By Y. Chris. Blackburn College.
This finding is also consistent with our data showing similar effect sizes for exposure vs discount calan 80 mg amex. Taken together generic calan 80mg with amex, these data suggest that the non- exposure treatments studied to date are probably no more efficacious than placebo treatment. It is interesting to note that effect sizes for non-exposure treatments were larger for questionnaire measures (d=1. One interpretation may be that these alternative treatments are equivalent in demand characteristics to placebo conditions. This would help explain the discrepancy in questionnaire and behavioral data as questionnaires are easier to “fake” than are behavioral assessments. Nevertheless, the development of more potent alternatives to exposure treatment remains an important goal given the reluctance of many phobic individuals to undergo exposure treatment (Marks, 1992). Not surprisingly, our findings revealed that the superiority of exposure treatments over “bona fide” alternative treatments diminishes at follow-up (yet remains statistically significant). However, these findings should be viewed with caution given the small number of comparisons and the biases introduced by subject attrition. One explanation for this finding is that phobic individuals who show short-term improvement regardless of the type of treatment they receive may be more apt to engage in naturalistic exposure during the follow-up period, thus moving them closer to the exposure-treated participants at follow-up. Future research is needed on the longer-term effects of alternatives to exposure-based treatments. Unfortunately, the comparisons involving alternatives to exposure in this meta-analysis were too few to examine specific variants of non- exposure treatments. By collapsing the non-exposure treatments into one category, we do not intend to suggest that all non-exposure treatments are equally efficacious. Indeed, studies that have manipulated parameters of exposure provide evidence suggesting that the way in which exposure treatment is conducted can K. One conclusion offered from several qualitative reviews is that in vivo exposure is more effective than other modes of exposure (Antony & Barlow, 2002; Choy et al. However, both of these reviews point to the lack of direct comparisons between in vivo exposure and alternative modes of exposure treatment. While in vivo exposure outperformed alternative modes of exposure at post-treatment, the superiority of in vivo exposure was no longer present at follow-up. Additional analyses were performed to determine whether the lack of differences at follow-up were due to greater return of fear in the in vivo exposure treatment or greater improvement from the post-treatment to follow-up period for those receiving alternative modes of exposure treatment. Among those receiving in vivo exposure, four of the five studies reporting follow-up data showed no additional improvement from post to follow-up (Emmelkamp et al. In contrast, among those treated with an alternative mode of exposure, four of the five studies showed additional improvement from post to follow-up and one study showed maintenance of treatment gains. These findings suggest that exposure treatment when conducted in vivo may lead to more rapid improvement relative to less direct forms of exposure treatment. However, the advantage of in vivo exposure is no longer present at follow-up due to continued improvement for those receiving less direct forms of exposure as opposed to greater return of fear among those receiving in vivo exposure. Although the lack of significant differences at follow-up may be due to continued naturalistic exposure during the post-treatment to follow-up period, none of the studies reported data on this variable. Another possibility is that a ceiling effect may have been present for those who received in vivo exposure. Even though those receiving non-in vivo exposure continued to improve from post to follow-up, their fear reduction did not surpass that of those receiving in vivo exposure. Improvement for those in the in vivo exposure conditions may have reached a ceiling effect, while those receiving non- in vivo exposure modalities may have had more room for improvement, which they achieved via naturalistic exposure from the post to follow-up periods. Although many patients who undergo one- session treatment protocols show clinically significant improvement (e. Rather, our findings showed that those treated with five sessions of exposure-based treatment were reporting moderately more improvement on self-report measures of phobic symptoms relative to those treated in just one session. Further probing of the differences at follow-up suggest that the superiority of multiple sessions vs. These findings should be interpreted cautiously, as few studies were included in this comparison. However, our moderator analyses showing that number of treatment sessions predicted treatment response (with more sessions associated with better outcome) provides additional support for the value of multiple treatment sessions. The studies included in this comparison showed considerable heterogeneity in their findings, with some showing large and consistently positive effect sizes favoring exposure with a cognitive augmentation strategy (e. These inconsistencies may be due in part to the heterogeneity of interventions that are labeled “cognitive”. Factors predicting treatment outcome With the exception of treatment length, none of the other potential prognostic variables included in the moderator analyses were significantly associated with treatment outcome. These data suggest that the effect sizes for the major comparisons of interest were not significantly qualified by phobia subtype, level of therapist involvement, or date of publication.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary 120mg calan with mastercard, an abortion shall not be performed upon an unemancipated minor until at least 48 hours after written notice of the pending operation has been delivered in the manner specified in this act purchase calan 120mg free shipping. The 48 hour period for notice sent under the provisions of this subsection shall begin at noon on the next day on which regular mail delivery takes place following the day on which the mailings are posted. A minor may, by petition or motion, seek a waiver of parental notification from a judge of the Superior Court. The petition or motion shall include a statement that the minor is pregnant and is not emancipated. The minor may participate in proceedings in the court on her own behalf, and the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for her. The court shall, however, advise her that she has a right to court appointed counsel, and shall, upon her request, provide her with such counsel. Proceedings in the court under this section shall be confidential and insure the anonymity of the minor and shall be given such precedence over other pending matters so that the court may reach a decision promptly and without delay so as to serve the best interests of the minor. A judge of the Superior Court who conducts proceedings under this section shall make written factual findings and legal conclusions within 48 hours of the time that the petition or motion is filed unless the time is extended at the request of the unemancipated minor. If the court fails to rule within 48 hours and the time is not extended, the petition is granted and the notice requirement shall be waived. Notice of a determination made under this paragraph shall be made to the Division of Youth and Family Services. An expedited confidential appeal shall be available to a minor for whom the court denies an order waiving notification. No filing fees shall be required of any minor at either the trial or the appellate level. Access to the trial court for the purposes of such a 12 Note: Held unconstitutional by Planned Parenthood of Cent. When a minor believes that he is suffering from the use of drugs or is a drug dependent person as defined in section 2 of P. Any such consent shall not be subject to later disaffirmance by reason of minority. Treatment for drug use, drug abuse, alcohol use or alcohol abuse that is consented to by a minor shall be considered confidential information between the physician, the treatment provider or the treatment facility, as appropriate, and his patient, and neither the minor nor his physician, treatment provider or treatment facility, as appropriate, shall be required to report such treatment when it is the result of voluntary consent, except as may otherwise be required by law. The consent of no other person or persons, including but not limited to a spouse, parent, custodian or guardian, shall be necessary in order to authorize such hospital, facility or clinical care or services or medical or surgical care or services to be provided by a physician licensed to practice medicine or by an individual licensed or certified to provide treatment for alcoholism to such a minor. Any person of the age of 17 years or over can consent to donate blood in any voluntary and noncompensatory blood program without the necessity of obtaining parental permission or authorization. Such consent shall be valid and binding as if the person had achieved his majority, and shall not be subject to later disaffirmance because of minority. For purposes of this section, “medically necessary health care” means clinical and rehabilitative, physical, mental or behavioral health services that are: (1) essential to prevent, diagnose or treat medical conditions or that are essential to enable an unemancipated minor to attain, maintain or regain functional capacity; (2) delivered in the amount and setting with the duration and scope that is clinically appropriate to the specific physical, mental and behavioral health-care needs of the minor; (3) provided within professionally accepted standards of practice and national guidelines; and (4) required to meet the physical, mental and behavioral health needs of the minor, but not primarily required for convenience of the minor, health-care provider or payer. The consent of the unemancipated minor to examination or treatment pursuant to this section shall not be disaffirmed because of minority. The parent or legal guardian of an unemancipated minor who receives medically necessary health care is not liable for payment for those services unless the parent or legal guardian has consented to such medically necessary health care; provided that the provisions of this subsection do not relieve a parent or legal guardian of liability for payment for emergency health care provided to an unemancipated minor. A health-care provider or a health-care institution shall not be liable for reasonably relying on statements made by an unemancipated minor that the minor is eligible to give consent pursuant to Subsection A of this section. A child under fourteen years of age may initiate and consent to an initial assessment with a clinician and for medically necessary early intervention service limited to verbal therapy as set forth in this section. The purpose of the initial assessment is to allow a clinician to interview the child and determine what, if any, action needs to be taken to ensure appropriate mental health or habilitation services are provided to the child. The clinician may conduct an initial assessment and provide medically necessary early intervention service limited to verbal therapy with or without the consent of the legal custodian if such service will not extend beyond two calendar weeks. If, at any time, the clinician has a reasonable suspicion that the child is an abused or neglected child, the clinician shall immediately make a child abuse and neglect report. Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to provide a child fourteen years of age or older with independent consent rights for the purposes of the provision of special education and related services as set forth in federal law. Psychotropic medications may be administered to a child fourteen years of age or older with the informed consent of the child. However, nothing in this section shall limit the rights of a child fourteen years of age or older to consent to services and to consent to disclosure of mental health records. A child fourteen years of age or older shall not be determined to lack capacity solely on the basis that the child chooses not to accept the treatment recommended by the mental health or developmental disabilities professional. A child fourteen years of age or older may at any time contest a determination that the child lacks capacity by a signed writing or by personally informing a clinician that the determination is contested. A clinician who is informed by a child that such determination is contested shall promptly communicate that the determination is contested to any supervising provider or institution at which the child is receiving care. The legal custodian shall communicate an assumption of authority as promptly as practicable to the child fourteen years of age or older and to the clinician and to the supervising mental health or developmental disability treatment and habilitation provider. If more than one legal custodian assumes authority to act as an agent, the consent of both shall be required for nonemergency treatment. In an emergency, the consent of one legal custodian is sufficient, but the treating mental health professional shall provide the other legal custodian with oral notice followed by written documentation.
The position paper used The ideal macronutrient composition of the meal an “Evidence Analysis Process” to identify effective nutri- plan for weight loss and weight maintenance is still being tional strategies for weight management cheap 80mg calan with amex. Reducing carbohydrate intake to <35% of kcal in vegetable proteins) purchase 240mg calan with mastercard, European diets (including alcohol consumed results in reduced energy intake and is and saturated fat), and the America Diet (lower in fat) are associated with a greater weight- and fat-loss dur- being considered. Every involving small changes to prevent weight gain kilogram of reduction in body weight results in a 2. In a meta- As American adults continue to steadily gain small analysis of 25 trials, a loss of 5. Meal planning is an effort to prevent the progression to Energy expenditure is an important component of obesity and/or exacerbation of the obese state. What Nutritional Recommendations are intake in the form of foods—in the context of an appropri- Appropriate for Cardiovascular Health? Clinical Guidelines on the Identifcation, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Excess body weight clearly affects hyper- plan is as follows (% values are of total daily calories): 25 tension status. A dose-dependent 38 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. The current recommendations for treating hyperten- Salt (NaCl) intake differed (high, 3,300 mg/day; medium, sion according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National 2,300 mg/day; and low, 1,500 mg/day). What Nutrient Sources Should Be Limited for mended <7%) and usual sodium intake is 1,554 mg/1,000 Cardiovascular Health? Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientifc statement from the American Heart Association. The fruits and dairy products, have intrinsic sugars and are not Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee states that “there restricted. Analysis of a and meta-analysis of fve large, epidemiologic studies, cohort from the Framingham Heart Study demonstrated red meat intake (i. Salt is added to processed foods to improve taste and Lean or very lean cuts of red meat should be chosen instead also to preserve foods for a longer shelf life. Epidemiologic and prospective cohort studies rely on Refned grain intake also was signifcantly associated with dietary assessment data, which is prone to regression dilu- overall poorer meal planning and unhealthy behaviors, tion bias and measurement error. Based on both a strong evidence base and the for health outcomes—decreasing refned grain intake or emerging data with regards to fats, intake should be shifted increasing whole grain intake. What Nutritional Recommendations are Refned Grains Appropriate for Diabetes Mellitus? Refned grains are produced by removing the germ and bran from the seed in processing. The fortifcation of grains in the United on the interaction between ingested food and metabolism, States with iron, niacin, thiamin, ribofavin, folate, and cal- then in order to address this question, specifc healthy cium, however, has made micronutrients highly bioavail- eating strategies should be based upon the key metabolic able in refned grains. In addition, the source of ingested protein home glucose monitoring, and frequency and severity and the nature of the accompanying fat appear to affect of hypoglycemia and then offered specifc management markers of infammation and metabolic risks. These dietary intervention contains very little starch (composed recent discoveries and novel systems biology models raise entirely of glucose molecules) or sucrose (composed of new possibilities for novel nutritional, pharmacologic, or 50% glucose). What Nutritional Recommendations are fower seeds; dry roasted soybeans; dark leafy Appropriate for Patients with greens, including spinach, turnip greens, and Chronic Kidney Disease? However, nutritional interventions maintain this degree of protein restriction, an intake of up should be individualized and evaluated with care because to 0. Limiting salt intake to ≤2 g/ Sodium <2 g/day day may be necessary, especially for patients with edema, Potassium 2,000-3,000 mg/day (40-70 mEq/day) heart failure, or hypertension. When serum potassium levels are elevated, ~12 to 15% of the total kcal/day, but the total amount of potassium intake (including salt substitutes) should be lim- protein varies greatly with the level of total caloric intake ited to 2,000 to 3,000 mg/day (40 to 70 mEq/day). Potassium should still be limited meal plan provides ~13% of kcal/day at the 1,200 kcal/ if blood tests show phosphate or potassium levels above day level but only ~8% of kcal at the 2,400 kcal/day level. Energy-intake requirements have been studied Vitamin D in hemodialysis patients considered to be under metabolic Supplemental vitamin D should be given to treat balance conditions. The study showed that the necessary energy treatment with an activated form of vitamin D (calcitriol, intake of 35 kcal/kg body weight/day was enough to main- alfacalcidol, paracalcitol, or doxercalciferol) is indicated. Iron should be administered to maintain the transferrin Nutrient Recommendation saturation >20% and serum ferritin level >100 ng/mL. For stable hemodialysis patients, the recom- Patients on peritoneal dialysis experience decreased appe- mended protein intake is 1. The Evaluation of A1c should include assessment of home following are recommended doses, often found in renal blood sugar records showing pre- and postprandial blood vitamins: vitamin C, 60 mg (not to exceed 200 mg daily); sugar excursions, as well as frequency and severity of folic acid, 1 mg; thiamine, 1. What Nutritional Recommendations are Patients on peritoneal dialysis should have a total daily Appropriate for Bone Health?