By B. Roy. Coastal Carolina University.
The contaminated product buy 25 mg clomiphene overnight delivery, My Pikin buy generic clomiphene 100mg line, was registered with the Nigerian regulatory authority and made in Lagos, the national manu- facturing hub (Akuse et al. Inspectors traced the problem back to deliberate fraud by a chemical dealer in Lagos, eventually leading to 12 prosecutions (Poisoned teething drug arrests, 2009; Polgreen, 2009). A similar tragedy unfolded on a larger scale the previous year in Pan- ama when a Chinese chemical manufacturer sold diethylene glycol, the ac- tive ingredient in antifreeze, as pharmaceutical-grade glycerin to a European company (Bogdanich and Hooker, 2007). The Panamanian government counted 219 deaths from kidney failure brought on by diethylene glycol poisoning (Núñez, 2011). The 2006 diethylene glycol poisoning was an international tragedy, and 18 of the causalities were Chinese (Bogdanich, 2007). In the early 2000s some sources called China “the world’s largest producer of bogus medi- cines”; Chinese newspaper accounts contain stories of similar mass poison- ings (Fackler, 2002). In 2001 reporters described the death of a southwest China mine owner from a poisoned albumin drip (Fackler, 2002). Though poisonous drugs are part of the story, the more insidious Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Ineffective medicines of- ten contain benign ingredients, such as chalk, pollen, or four, instead of medicinal chemicals. More dangerously, some contain substances intended to mask the illness and feign treatment, such as paracetemol added to fake antimalarials to lower fever. Patients taking ineffective drugs die of appar- ently natural causes, making these products more diffcult to identify. Untreated Disease, Disease Progression, and Death Medicine is intended to cure patients, or at least to relieve symptoms or slow the progression of a disease. When prescribing medicines of known content and potency, the clinician may suspect inadequate dosing, drug resistance, or misdiagnosis if the patient does not respond to treatment as expected. Advising physicians to consider the possibility of medicine fraud suggests that they have a way to verify it. In parts of the world where such assays are too costly or too technologically complicated to pursue, this information is usually unknowable. Confrmed accounts of drug failure are only a fraction of the larger, mostly invisible, problem. A random sample of all known medicine shops in three districts of Ghana found the uterotonic drugs oxytocin and ergometrine to be of uniformly poor quality: 89 percent of the samples tested were below British Pharma- copoeia specifcations though only 2 percent were expired (Stanton et al. Unicef, the United Nations Children’s Fund, estimates the maternal mortality ratio in Ghana to be 350 per 100,000 live births (Unicef, 2003), of which hemorrhage, a condition treated with uterotonic drugs, is the most common cause (Asamoah et al. Even in Ghanaian hospital studies, where one would expect hemorrhage to be an uncommon cause of death, it accounts for an estimated 17 to 22 percent of maternal deaths (Ganyaglo and Hill, 2012; Lee et al. Increasing access to emergency obstetric care is a key piece of any strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Campbell and Graham, 2006), one that lies on the assumption that lifesaving utero- tonic medicines are of reliable potency. The identifcation of falsifed and substandard medicines is more often incidental, found in newspaper accounts or uncovered in research that had a different primary aim. Medications for Chronic Diseases In 2009 a southwest China newspaper reported on a substandard version of the diabetes drug glibenclamide (also called glyburide) found to contain six times the pharmacopeial standard dose (Xiang, 2009). The medicine was tested only after killing two people and injuring nine (Cheng, 2009; Xiang, 2009). In a convenience sample of pharmacies in Lagos, Nigeria, researchers found that four of eight popular brands of metformin tablets failed one or more pharmacopeial tests of bioequivalence (Olusola et al. These are troubling fndings, given that an estimated 80 percent of the world’s 347 million diabetics live in low- and middle-income countries, where medi- cines quality is most variable, and diabetes case-fatality exorbitantly high (Unachukwu et al. Dora Akunyili, the former direc- tor of the Nigerian drug regulatory authority, worked against pharmaceu- tical fraud, a cause she committed to after her diabetic sister’s death from fake insulin (Cheng, 2009; Lemonick, 2005). Medication for other chronic diseases has been compromised in devel- oping countries. A Rwandan study on drug stability found that 20 percent of medicines in a sample of Kigali and Butare pharmacies were substandard at the time of purchase (Twagirumukiza et al. Two studies of the antihypertensive amlodipine’s quality in south Nigeria found problems: one study reported 30 percent of samples failed pharmacopeial tests for content uniformity (Eichie et al. The management of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension depend on maintenance medication and monitoring. The sheer amount of products used to treat these conditions raises the patients’ lifetime risk of encountering a bad product, even in countries with strin- gent regulatory authorities (see Box 2-1). The need for reliable medicines in low- and middle-income countries will become more pronounced as the burden of chronic disease increases in these countries. Already cardiovascu- lar disease is the main killer of adults in low- and middle-income countries, Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. OneTouch Ultra brand blood glucose moni- tors after LifeScan notifed the agency that it had received a number of customer complaints.
Programmes should determine which clinical and laboratory services will be available at what level of the health care delivery system buy clomiphene 25 mg line. All health workers generic clomiphene 100 mg mastercard, including community health workers, need to be trained regularly, mentored and supervised to ensure high-quality care and implementation of updated national recommendations. Programme managers should support the development and implementation of policies to create a suitable environment for recruiting, retaining and motivating personnel in rural or remote areas, where health worker turnover and attrition may be considerably higher than in urban settings. An effcient division of responsibilities among levels of the health system (national, provincial or regional and district) is crucial to minimize duplication and to optimize the use of resources. The role of each level should match its capacity, and the lines of authority and accountability should be clear and well understood by all. National regulatory bodies, professional associations and other stakeholders need to be involved when addressing the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities of health workers. Since all treatment regimen options have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, the use of less preferred options is better than leaving children untreated. Diagnosis and treatment for children are often performed at different facilities, increasing the risk of their being lost to follow-up. It is important to design and implement family-based care strategies that can support and facilitate retention and adherence among children. Interventions must also take into account the special adherence challenges of children who move between households. The overall operational plan for phasing out d4T should be fully costed and should consider any additional investment in laboratory strengthening and capacity- building that may be required to support implementation. Because of programme constraints, not all countries may be able to promptly switch everyone receiving d4T to new regimens. Although new d4T orders should be discontinued, adequate and timely forecasting and procurement of the preferred alternative drug are critical to avoid stock-outs and treatment interruption. Countries are encouraged to ensure they are procuring these drugs at the best possible price. Options include reserving stocks for back-up situations for individuals who may require d4T in the absence of alternative choices. This section provides a broad outline of possible sequencing approaches to phasing in key recommendations, considering the available scientifc evidence, results from mathematical models (Box 10. It draws on views expressed in the Guidelines Development Group on Programmatic Issues and therefore does not constitute formal recommendations. National stakeholders are responsible for the process of revising and adapting the guidelines, and different approaches may be necessary and equally valid. This requires addressing any structural barriers that may prevent these populations from seeking and accessing care. In addition, as in concentrated epidemics, it important to identify and reach key populations and those with poor access to clinical and community-based services. These may include sex workers, people who inject drugs, men who have sex with 218 Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing hiv infection men, transgender people or other groups such as adolescent girls, migrants and other mobile populations, older women and certain high-risk occupational groups. Scaling up viral load monitoring will be important to adequately identify treatment failure and to avoid switching unnecessarily to second-line regimens. As people initiate treatment earlier and stay on it for longer, monitoring the quality of service delivery and strengthening service linkages to improve retention throughout the cascade of care are essential to optimize treatment outcomes and long-term programme performance. The key inputs required are the distribution of the adult population by risk group (such as serodiscordant stable couples, those with casual partners, female sex workers, male clients of sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people and people who inject drugs); sexual behaviour by risk group (numbers of partners per year, acts per partner and condom use) and needle sharing among people who inject drugs. Goals models already exist for about 25 countries, and other countries have compiled these data in the context of modes of transmission studies. OneHealth is a software tool designed to strengthen health system analysis and costing and to develop fnancing scenarios at the country level. It is specifcally designed to assess health investment needs in low- and middle-income countries and provides planners with a single framework for planning, costing, impact analysis, budgeting and fnancing of strategies for all major diseases and health system components. Several are available for download, with a description of their main purposes and programmatic focus (25). A fexible tool for costing investments in critical enablers (such as integrated treatment and rights literacy programmes, legal services, stigma and discrimination reduction programmes, training for health care workers and law enforcement) has also been developed and can be downloaded for free, along with a user guide (27,28). Such information is essential to detect and respond to bottlenecks or gaps in programme performance and to adequately characterize and respond to patient attrition. As programmes mature, monitoring individual- and population-level outcomes, including toxicity and adverse events, drug resistance, viral suppression, mortality, survival and incidence, is also essential to assess the impact of programmes. The community can also play a key role in designing and implementing data collection tools and analysing and interpreting findings. The publication on three interlinked patient monitoring systems (1) will also be updated to reflect this new monitoring and evaluation guidance. This will enable national programmes to document the effect of the shift in guidelines and can contribute to evaluating the impact of the guidelines.
Rabbits treated daily for 13–18 weeks by intubation with 10–250 mg/kg bw zalci- tabine per day showed persistent lymphopenia with decreased red and white blood cell counts clomiphene 50 mg with amex, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration cheap clomiphene 25 mg without a prescription. Most animals had non-regene- rative macrocytic anaemia of bone-marrow origin and a progressive loss of lym- phocytes until death (Riley et al. Pigtailed macaques were given zalcitabine at 15 or 30 mg/kg bw per day intra- venously, either as a 24-h continuous infusion or a daily bolus dose for 10–12 days. All animals showed leukopenia, anaemia, lethargy and reduced appetite, and those given the bolus doses also had exfoliative dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy (Tsai et al. New Zealand white rabbits were given zalcitabine at 0–250 mg/kg bw per day for 13–18 weeks. Rabbits at doses > 50 mg/kg bw per day developed hind-limb paresis and gait abnormalities and a 30–50% decrease in nerve conduction. Electron microscopy showed demyelination of the sciatic nerve and ventral root, excess Schwann-cell basal lamina, abnormally shaped axons and the presence of lipid droplets (Feldman et al. The abnormal mitochondria were cup-shaped with tubular cristae (Feldman & Anderson, 1994). Maternal weight gain during the treatment period and gravid uterine weight were decreased at 2000 mg/kg bw per day, but weight gain corrected for gravid uterine weight was not affected. At this dose, the mean litter size was decreased, and the percentage of resorptions per litter was increased. The average fetal body weight per litter was decreased at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw per day. The number of fetuses with any malformation, the number of litters with one or more malformed fetuses and the percentage of malformed fetuses per litter were increased at the two higher doses. The malformations included open eyelids, micrognathia, kinked tail, clubbed paws, cleft palate, fused cervical arch, bent humerus and bent tibia (Lindström et al. References such as The Physician’s Desk Reference (Medical Economics Data Production, 1999) provide results but few or no details of the experimental conditions used in the assays. The manufacturer of the drug has yet to publish a detailed report equivalent to those available in the literature on aciclovir and zidovudine. Nevertheless, the limited geno- toxicity data available indicate that zalcitabine is clastogenic at high doses. Zalcitabine did not induce reverse mutation in Salmonella typhimurium [no information on doses or strains or the presence of exogenous metabolic activation] and did not induce gene mutation in unspecified tests in Chinese hamster lung and mouse lymphoma cells. It induced cell transformation in vitro [cell type and experimental conditions not given] at doses ≥ 500 μg/mL (Medical Economics Data Production, 1999). Zalcitabine induced prophage lambda, but not sulA, in the liquid micro- suspension assay at 1000 μg/mL. Zalcitabine caused clastogenic effects in all studies performed in vitro and in vivo, except one. Human peripheral blood cells exposed to zalcitabine with and without exo- genous metabolic activation showed increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations at doses ≥ 1. Administration of oral doses of ≥ 500 mg/kg bw zalcitabine on three consecutive days to groups of five to seven male B6C3F1 mice produced micro- nuclei. Zalcitabine was less potent than zidovudine in inducing micronuclei (Phillips Table 1. The highest dose used in the latter study was selected to represent the daily dose of a person of average body weight, whereas patient therapy with zalcitabine, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, involves long-term treatment. The question raised by this finding is whether this low dose of zalcitabine failed to induce micronuclei in the mice or whether the genotoxic effects at these exposure levels are too small to be detected in the tests as performed (Shelby, 1994) (see section 4. Nevertheless, the occurrence of deletions in the tumours from zalcitabine-treated mice is consistent with the action of this drug as a chain terminator. In humans, the dose-limiting toxic effect, per- pheral neuropathy, requires that the daily dose be limited to about 0. The main mechanism of the antiviral activity and toxicity of zalcitabine and other ‘dideoxy-type’ nucleoside analogue drugs (see the monographs on zidovudine and didanosine, sections 4. These compounds can competitively inhibit binding of normal nucleotides to the nucleotide binding site of the reverse transcriptase and terminate replication once incorporation has occurred (Yarchoan et al. The mito- chondrial myopathy observed clinically after zidovudine therapy is not seen in patients receiving zalcitabine, perhaps because the doses are limited by the prevalence of peri- pheral neuropathy. An association between zalcitabine and peripheral neuropathy was established in a rabbit model by Feldman and Anderson (1994), who observed that rabbits with zalci- tabine-induced myelinopathy (section 4. The appearance of cup-shaped mitochondria with abnormal cristae coincided with the onset of physical symptoms. Nucleoside phosphorylation and intracellular levels of phosphorylated metabolites play an important role in zalcitabine-related toxicity. The doses at which zalcitabine induces thymic lymphomas in mice are about 1000-fold higher than the maximum doses tolerated by humans, non-human primates and rabbits. Studies of the mutagenicity of zalcitabine are scarce; however, the available data indicate that it induces clastogenic effects in vitro and in vivo at high doses. The potential impor- tance of deletion mutations in zalcitabine-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo is supported by the high frequency of homozygous deletions in tumour suppressor genes in thymic lymphomas from zalcitabine-exposed B6C3F1 mice.