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They found that the affinity and sensitivity of this receptor were significantly higher in the endogenous depressed patients than those in the normal control purchase labetalol 100 mg without a prescription. In a study 100mg labetalol with mastercard, 60 patients with depression were randomly divided into acupuncture group and medication group. They were treated using acupuncture and oral antidepressant, fluoxetine, respectively, for 4 weeks. The results showed that the marked effective rate was 73% in the acupuncture group with a less reverse effect. Other researches on the neuroendocrine mechanism of acupuncture treatment for depression were carried out on the animal depression models. Furthermore, the blood samples of the 30 normal controls matched with age and sex were collected before and after the treatment. Several antibodies were utilized to quantify the levels of G protein-Į subtypes in the platelet membrane, before and after 6-week antidepressive treatment. The results exhibited that all the treatments had the same therapeutic effects in treating moderate depression. Furthermore, both the levels of GĮi and GĮq in the depressed patients were significantly higher than those in the control group, and were not reduced by treatments, although the severity was considerably relieved. The hippocampus could contribute to increased anxiety, and indirectly influence mood and cognition via connections with the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Based on these observations, many studies on the mechanism of acupuncture have focused on the role of hippocampus. The possible mechanisms responsible for the antidepressant-like effect of acupuncture treatment on depression are shown in Fig. The available sources provide some evidences on the notion that acupuncture or acupuncture combined with other therapies is an efficacious remedy for depression. Moreover, the signal transduction system is also observed to be involved in 453 Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View Figure 17. Under a 40u with a 100u zoom magnification, individual cells in the clusters are clearly visualized (d). Owing to these studies and observations, the use of acupuncture for the treatment of depression is gradually increasing worldwide. Chinese Medicine is perhaps one of the foremost therapeutic avenues which use nature’s assistance to rebalance the human body. The term “Acupuncture” consists of two words from the Latin—acus: needle and puncture: insertion. It is a treatment procedure in which, generally, steel, silver, or gold needles are inserted into specific acupuncture points. Although the history of acupuncture dates back to ancient times, it has not lost its popularity. In a large- scale study by Harvard Medical School, which has been published in the New England Journal of Medicine, depression was observed to be among the most frequently- reported conditions, and one of the top five conditions for which people were more likely to seek alternative treatments, with or without established treatments, than established treatments alone; and acupuncture was one of the alternative treatments listed in the study (Eisenberg et al. The studies presented in this chapter suggest that the use of acupuncture or acupuncture combined with other therapy could be as effective as other types of treatments typically used in the Western Medicine, such as psychotherapy and drugs, in relieving depression symptoms. However, further clinical trials with larger samples are necessary to endorse this treatment for relief from depression. Acknowledgements The project was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. Can J Psychiatry 42: 367 377 Cherkezova M, Toteva S (1991) Reflexotherapy in the treatment of alcoholics with depressive syndrome. Zhonghua Shen Jing Jing Shen Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry) 25: 322 324, 382 (in Chinese with English abstract) Frydrychowski A, Landowski J, Watrobski Z, Ostrowska B (1984) Use of acupuncture in the treatment of depressive syndromes. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science 11: 277 279 Han C, Li X, Luo H, Zhao X, Li X (2004a) Clinical study on electro acupuncture treatment for 30 cases of mental depression. Electroacupuncture attenuates the decrease of hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation in the adult rats exposed 457 Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View to chronic unpredictable stress. Clinical research on the therapeutic effect of the electroacupuncture treatment in patients with depression. Neurosci Lett 319: 153 156 Pohl A, Nordin C (2002) Clinical and biochemical observations during treatment of depression with electroacupuncture: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion 20: 7 Song C (2000) The interaction between cytokines and neurotransmitters in depression and stress: possible mechanism of antidepressant treatments. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu (Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion) 24: 78 80 Zhang C (2005) The brain resuscitation acupuncture method for treatment of post wind stroke mental depression a report of 45 cases. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu (Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion) 27(5): 317 321 459 18 Effect of Acupuncture on Drug Addiction Yi Feng and Boying Chen Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P. China Summary This chapter summarizes the advancement of clinical acupuncture for drug addiction and the basic research on its mechanisms. Although, the mechanisms underlying the acupuncture treatment are not well understood, evidence has shown that acupuncture can regulate the function of endogenous opioids and other neurotransmitter systems, and can modulate immunity, endocrinology, and psychology, to achieve the therapeutic effect on drug addiction. Keywords acupucture, drug addiction, ȕ-endorphin, hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal axis, withdrawal syndrome 18. Various drugs, such as cocaine, heroin, ice (the popular name for methamphetamine hydrochloride, a deadly addictive stimulant drug), and dancing outreach, can induce severe addiction, serious withdrawal syndromes, and have extremely high recurrence rate after quitting.
They 9 have allowed for reduced healing periods and predictable treatment outcomes in numerous treatment indications purchase 100 mg labetalol, such as immediate placement and immediate loading (De Bruyn et al labetalol 100mg cheap. The subtractive techniques remove material from the implant surface creating pits or pores on the surface and result in a concave profle. Examples for these techniques are electropo- lishing, mechanical polishing, blasting, etching and oxidation. The additive techniques add material and create a surface with bumps and a convex profle. Examples of these techniques are hydroxylapatite and other calcium phosphate coatings, titanium plasma spraying and ion deposition (Wennerberg & Albrektsson 2009). Surface roughness is often described in terms of Ra, a two-dimensional measurement, or preferably Sa, the corresponding three-dimensional parameter. According to their surface roughness, dental implant surfaces are classifed into four different groups. Smooth implant surfaces refer to a Sa value 220 Summary, Discussion… of less than 0. Currently, minimally and 2 moderate rough surfaces are accepted as the preferred surfaces for the part of the implant inserted into the bone (Wennerberg & Albrektsson, 2010; Buser et al. The roughness of the implant surface, as well as its chemical composition and surface free energy, has an impact on the amount and quality of plaque formation. Rougher 4 surfaces and surfaces with high free energy, which is a characteristic of titanium, accumulate and retain more plaque. The initial adhesion of bacteria starts at locations with high wetta- 5 bility, which is also a characteristic of titanium, and from surface irregularities, like pits and grooves, where bacteria are protected from shear forces (Teughels et al. Consequently implant surfaces have been found to accumulate more plaque than natural teeth (Quirynen 6 & Bollen 1995), and roughened titanium surfaces are considered to accumulate and retain more plaque than smooth surfaces (Quirynen et al. The surface of a 8 transmucosal abutment should be smooth to establish a long-lasting soft tissue seal and to avoid adverse soft tissue reactions (Sawase et al. Nevertheless a certain surface rough- 9 ness is required for an optimal soft tissue seal. Highly polished abutments favour less plaque retention but they have been found to negatively affect the soft tissue seal due to interac- tions between surface structure and fbroblast and/or epithelial cell attachment and prolif- eration (Bollen et al. Thus implant components exposed to the oral cavity should have a smooth surface to avoid plaque accumulation and to promote an optimal soft tissue seal. The Ra values of the transmucosal part of most implant systems, nowadays, range from 0. Yet, because of the limited hardness of titanium there is, in theory, a risk of surface roughening during self-performed or professional cleaning (Quirynen et al. Surface topography can affect the cell shape, orientation, proliferation and function (Könönen et al. Surface chemical composition is also important for tissue interactions (Sawase et al. It is generally accepted that the outermost atomic layer of the implant …& Conclusions 221 1 surface is an essential factor for the interaction with tissues. A major problem associated with the removal of plaque from implant surfaces is the possible damage to the implant surfaces. Any damage to the surface induces changes in the chemical oxide layer (Kasemo 2 & Lausmaa 1988) which in turn may affect the biocompatibility of the implant and conse- quently impair cell adhesion (Mouhyi et al. When the surface topography changes 3 also the surface chemistry or physics may change simultaneously. Furthermore, when the surface microtopography is changed, the nanotopography of the same surface usually also changes. All these factors may affect biological responses (Wennerberg & Albrektsson 4 2009). Ideally, the instruments used to effectively clean smooth surfaces should cause minimal or no surface damage, should not create a surface that is more conducive to bacterial colonization and should not affect the implant–soft tissue interface. If the soft tis- 7 sue attachment is disrupted, the instrumentation procedure should maintain a surface that is conducive to re-establishment of the soft tissue seal. When bone is lost, rough surfaces 8 become exposed resulting in the bacterial colonization of these surfaces. The decontami- nation of these surfaces is mandatory to achieve healing, with re-osseointegration being 9 the ultimate goal (Mombelli, 2002). In order to reduce microbial adherence and coloniza- tion on those rough surfaces that remain exposed to the oral environment, removal of the macroscopic and microscopic retentions is suggested (Jovanovic et al. The effect of mechanical instruments on smooth and rough titanium surfaces with respect to surface alterations, cleaning effcacy and biocompatibility has been evaluated in the studies pre- sented in chapters 2, 3 and 4. Surface alterations Chapter 2 scrutinized the available evidence on the effect of instrumentation on the surface roughness. Because of the nature of the question, experimental and mostly in vitro, studies were included in the analysis.